Technology (“science of craft”, from Greek τέχνη, techne, “art, skill, crafty of hand”; and -λογία, -logia is that the assortment of techniques, skills, methods, and processes utilized in the assembly of products or services or within the accomplishment of objectives, like scientific investigation. Technology will be the data of techniques, processes, and also the like, or it will be embedded in machines to permit for operation while not elaborate data of their workings.
The simplest sort of technology is that the development and use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of a way to management hearth and also the later Neolithic Revolution enhanced the offered sources of food, and also the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and management their surroundings. Developments in historic times, together with the machine, the phonephone, and also the net, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to move freely on a world scale. The steady progress of military technology has brought weapons of ever-increasing harmful power, from clubs to nuclear weapons.
Technology has several effects. it’s helped develop additional advanced economies (including today’s world economy) and has allowed the increase of a leisure category. several technological processes turn out unwanted by-products referred to as pollution and eat up natural resources to the impairment of Earth’s surroundings. Innovations have continuously influenced the values of a society and raised new queries of the ethics of technology. Examples embody the increase of the notion of potency in terms of human productivity, and also the challenges of ethics.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the employment of technology, with disagreements over whether or not technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar reactionary movements criticize the generality of technology, difference of opinion that it harms the surroundings and alienates people; proponents of ideologies like transhumanism and techno-progressivism read continuing technological progress as useful to society and also the human condition.
Definition and usage
The use of the term “technology” has modified considerably over the last two hundred years. Before the twentieth century, the term was uncommon in English, and it absolutely was used either to discuss with the outline or study of the helpful arts or to touch to technical education, as within the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (chartered in 1861).
The term “technology” rose to prominence within the twentieth century in reference to the Second technological revolution. The term’s meanings modified within the early twentieth century once yankee social scientists, starting with economist, translated concepts from the German conception of Technik into “technology.” In German and alternative European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie that’s absent in English, that typically interprets each terms as “technology.” By the Nineteen Thirties, “technology” referred not solely to the study of the economic arts however to the economic arts themselves.
In 1937, the yankee social scientist browse Bain wrote that “technology includes all tools, machines, utensils, weapons, instruments, housing, clothing, human action and transporting devices and therefore the skills by that we have a tendency to turn out and use them.” Bain’s definition remains common among students nowadays, particularly social scientists. Scientists and engineers typically favor to outline technology as subject field, instead of because the things that folks create and use.More recently, students have borrowed from European philosophers of “technique” to increase the that means of technology to varied kinds of instrumental reason, as in Foucault’s work on technologies of the self (techniques Diamond State soi).
Dictionaries and students have offered a range of definitions. The Merriam-Webster dictionary offers a definition of the term: “the use of science in trade, engineering, etc., to create helpful things or to resolve problems” and “a machine, piece of apparatus, method, etc., that’s created by technology.”Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 “Real World of Technology” lecture, gave another definition of the concept; it’s “practice, the manner we have a tendency to do things around here.”The term is usually wont to imply a particular field of technology, or to discuss with engineering or simply shopper physics, instead of technology as a full.Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in 2 ways: as “the pursuit of life by means that apart from life,” and as “organized inorganic matter.”
Technology are often most loosely outlined because the entities, each material and immaterial, created by the appliance of mental and physical effort so as to attain some price. during this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that will be wont to solve real-world issues. it’s a sweeping term that will embody straightforward tools, like a pry or picket spoon, or a lot of complicated machines, like an area station or accelerator. Tools and machines needn’t be material; virtual technology, like laptop code and business ways, fall into this definition of technology.W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a very equally broad manner as “a means that to meet somebody’s purpose.”
The word “technology” also can be wont to discuss with a group of techniques. during this context, it’s the present state of humanity’s data of a way to mix resources to supply desired product, to resolve issues, fulfill wants, or satisfy wants; it includes technical ways, skills, processes, techniques, tools and raw materials. once combined with another term, like “medical technology” or “space technology,” it refers to the state of the several field’s data and tools. “State-of-the-art technology” refers to the engineering out there to humanity in any field.
Technology are often viewed as Associate in Nursing activity that forms or changes culture. in addition, technology is that the application of scientific discipline, science, and therefore the arts for the good thing about life because it is understood. a contemporary example is that the rise of communication technology, that has lessened barriers to human interaction and as a result has helped spawn new subcultures; the increase of culture has at its basis the event of the net and therefore the laptop. Not all technology enhances culture in a very artistic way; technology also can facilitate facilitate political oppression and war via tools like guns. As a cultural activity, technology predates each science and engineering, every of that formalize some aspects of technological endeavor.
Science, engineering and technology
The distinction between science, engineering, and technology isn’t continually clear. Science is systematic information of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation. Technologies don’t seem to be sometimes solely product of science, as a result of they need to satisfy needs like utility, usability, and safety.
Engineering is that the goal-oriented method of planning and creating tools and systems to take advantage of natural phenomena for sensible human means that, typically (but not always) exploitation results and techniques from science. the event of technology could draw upon several fields of data, as well as scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical information, to attain some sensible result.
Technology is usually a consequence of science and engineering, though technology as a person’s activity precedes the 2 fields. for instance, science would possibly study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by exploitation already-existing tools and information. This new-found information could then be employed by engineers to form new tools and machines like semiconductors, computers, and different varieties of advanced technology. during this sense, scientists and engineers could each be thought of technologists; the 3 fields area unit typically thought of joined for the needs of analysis and reference.
The exact relations between science and technology particularly are debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers within the late twentieth century, partly as a result of the controversy will inform the funding of basic and subject field. within the immediate wake of war II, for instance, it absolutely was wide thought of within the u. s. that technology was merely “applied science” which to fund basic science was to reap technological ends up in due time. associate degree articulation of this philosophy may well be found expressly in Vannevar Bush’s writing on postwar science policy, Science – The Endless Frontier: “New product, new industries, and a lot of jobs need continuous additions to information of the laws of nature … This essential new information may be obtained solely through basic research.” within the late-1960s, however, this read came underneath direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for specific tasks (initiatives resisted by the scientific community). the problem remains contentious, although most analysts resist the model that technology merely may be a results of research.
Paleolithic (2.5 Ma – 10 ka)
The use of tools by early humans was part a method of discovery and of evolution. Early humans evolved from a species of hunt hominids that were already bipedal , with a brain mass close to one third of contemporary humans.Tool use remained comparatively unchanged for many of early human history. close to fifty,000 years past, the utilization of tools and sophisticated set of behaviors emerged, believed by several archaeologists to be connected to the emergence of absolutely fashionable language.
Hominids started victimisation primitive stone tools innumerable years agone. The earliest stone tools were very little over a broken rock, however around seventy five,000 years agone, pressure flaking provided some way to form abundant finer work.
The discovery and utilization of fireplace, an easy energy supply with several profound uses, was a turning purpose within the technological evolution of human race. the precise date of its discovery isn’t known; proof of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of human race suggests that the domestication hearth|of fireside|of fireplace} occurred before one Ma; studious agreement indicates that Homo erectus had controlled fire by between five hundred and four hundred Hindu deity. Fire, oxyacetylene with wood and charcoal, allowed early humans to cook their food to extend its digestibleness, rising its nutrient worth and broadening the amount of foods that might be consumed.
Clothing and shelter
Other technological advances created throughout the Paleolithic era were wear and shelter; the adoption of each technologies can’t be dated specifically, however they were a key to humanity’s progress. because the Paleolithic era progressed, dwellings became a lot of refined and a lot of elaborate; as early as 380 Ka, humans were constructing temporary wood huts. Clothing, custom-made from the fur and hides of afraid animals, helped humanity expand into colder regions; humans began to migrate out of continent by two hundred Ka and into alternative continents like Eurasia.
Neolithic Through Classical Antiquity (10 ka – 300 CE)
Human’s technological ascent began in earnest in what’s referred to as the Neolithic amount (“New Stone Age”). The invention of polished stone axes was a significant advance that allowed forest clearance on an oversized scale to form farms. This use of polished stone axes magnified greatly within the Neolithic, however were originally utilized in the preceding Mesolithic in some areas like eire. Agriculture fed larger populations, and therefore the transition to sedentism allowed at the same time raising a lot of youngsters, as infants now not required to be carried, as roving ones should. to boot, youngsters might contribute labor to the raising of crops a lot of without delay than they might to the barbarian economy.
With this increase in population and availableness of labor came a rise aborning specialization. What triggered the progression from early Neolithic villages to the primary cities, like Uruk, and therefore the 1st civilizations, like geographic region, isn’t specifically known; but, the emergence of more and more hierarchic social structures and specialised labor, of trade and war amongst adjacent cultures, and therefore the want for collective action to beat environmental challenges like irrigation, ar all thought to own compete a task.
Continuing enhancements semiconductor diode to the chamber and bellows and provided, for the primary time, the power to smelt and forge of gold, copper, silver, and lead – native metals found in comparatively pure type in nature.The advantages of copper tools over stone, bone, and picket tools were quickly apparent to early humans, and native copper was in all probability used from close to the start of Neolithic times (about ten ka). Native copper doesn’t naturally occur in giant amounts, however copper ores area unit quite common and a few of them manufacture metal simply once burned in wood or charcoal fires. Eventually, the operating of metals semiconductor diode to the invention of alloys like bronze and brass (about 4000 BCE). the primary uses of iron alloys like steel dates to around 1800 BCE.
Energy and transport
Meanwhile, humans were learning to harness different varieties of energy. The earliest legendary use of alternative energy is that the sailing ship; the earliest record of a ship underneath sail is that of a Nile boat geological dating to the eighth millennium BCE.From prehistoric times, Egyptians in all probability used the facility of the annual flooding of the Nile to irrigate their lands, step by step learning to manage a lot of of it through deliberately engineered irrigation channels and “catch” basins. the traditional Sumerians in geographic region used a posh system of canals and levees to divert water from the Tigris and Euphrates River rivers for irrigation.
According to archaeologists, the wheel was fictitious around 4000 BCE in all probability severally and nearly at the same time in geographic region (in current Iraq), the Northern Caucasus (Maykop culture) and Central Europe. Estimates on once this might have occurred vary from 5500 to 3000 BCE with most specialists golf stroke it nearer to 4000 BCE. The oldest artifacts with drawings portrayal wheeled carts initiate concerning 3500 BCE; but, the wheel could are in use for millennia before these drawings were created. a lot of recently, the oldest-known picket wheel within the world was found within the Ljubljana marshes of European country.
The invention of the wheel revolutionized trade and war. It didn’t take long to find that wheeled wagons may well be accustomed carry significant hundreds. the traditional Sumerians used the wheel and will have fictitious it.A stone pottery wheel found within the city-state of Ur dates to around 3429 BCE, and even older fragments of wheel-thrown pottery are found within the same space. quick (rotary) potters’ wheels enabled early production of pottery, however it absolutely was the employment of the wheel as a electrical device of energy (through water wheels, windmills, and even treadmills) that revolutionized the appliance of nonhuman power sources. 1st|the primary} machine carts were derived from travois and were first utilized in geographic region and Asian nation in around 3000 BCE.
The oldest legendary made roadways area unit the stone-paved streets of the city-state of Ur, geological dating to circa 4000 BCE and timber roads leading through the swamps of Glastonbury, England, geological dating to round the same fundamental quantity. the primary long-distance road, that came into use around 3500 BCE, spanned 1,500 miles from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean, however wasn’t sealed and was solely partly maintained. In around 2000 BCE, the Minoans on the Greek island of island engineered a fifty-kilometer (thirty-mile) road leading from the palace of Gortyn on the side of the island, through the mountains, to the palace of Knossos on the side of the island.Unlike the sooner road, the Minoan road was fully sealed.
Ancient Minoan non-public homes had running water. a tub just about the image of trendy ones was unearthed at the Palace of town. many Minoan non-public homes conjointly had bathrooms, that may well be flushed by gushing water down the drain.The ancient Romans had several public flush bathrooms that empty into an in depth installation. the first sewer in Rome was the drainpipe Maxima; construction began thereon within the sixth century BCE and it’s still in use these days.
The ancient Romans conjointly had a posh system of aqueducts that were wont to transport water across long distances. the primary Roman conduit was in-built 312 BCE. The eleventh and final ancient Roman conduit was in-built 226 Ce. place along, the Roman aqueducts extended over 450 kilometers, however but seventy kilometers of this was higher than ground and supported by arches.
Medieval And Modern History (300 CE – present)
Innovations continued through the center Ages with innovations like silk, the horse collar and horseshoes within the initial few hundred years once the autumn of the Roman Empire. Medieval technology saw the utilization of straightforward machines (such because the lever, the screw, and therefore the pulley) being combined to create a lot of difficult tools, like the handcart, windmills and clocks. The Renaissance brought forth several of those innovations, together with the machine (which expedited the bigger communication of knowledge), and technology became progressively related to science, starting a cycle of mutual advancement. The advancements in technology during this era allowed a a lot of steady provide of food, followed by the broader availableness of trade goods.
Starting within the uk within the eighteenth century, the economic Revolution was a amount of nice technological discovery, significantly within the areas of agriculture, producing, mining, metallurgy, and transport, driven by the invention of steam power. Technology took another step in a very second historic period with the harnessing of electricity to form such innovations because the motor, light bulb, and myriad others. Scientific advancement and also the discovery of latest ideas later allowed for powered flight and advancements in drugs, chemistry, physics, and engineering. the increase in technology has semiconductor diode to skyscrapers and broad urban areas whose inhabitants accept motors to move them and their food offer. Communication was additionally greatly improved with the invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio and tv. The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries saw a revolution in transportation with the invention of the aeroplane and automobile.
The twentieth century brought a bunch of innovations. In physics, the invention of nuclear reaction has semiconductor diode to each nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. Computers were additionally unreal and later miniaturized utilizing transistors and integrated circuits. data technology afterward semiconductor diode to the creation of the web, that ushered within the current modern era. Humans have additionally been ready to explore house with satellites (later used for telecommunication) and in manned missions going all the thanks to the moon. In drugs, this era brought innovations like heart surgery and later somatic cell medical aid along side new medications and coverings.
Complex producing and construction techniques and organizations ar required to create and maintain these new technologies, and full industries have arisen to support and develop succeeding generations of additional} more advanced tools. trendy technology more and more depends on coaching and education – their designers, builders, maintainers, and users typically need refined general and specific coaching. Moreover, these technologies became thus advanced that entire fields are created to support them, together with engineering, medicine, and technology, and different fields are created a lot of advanced, like construction, transportation and design.
Generally, technicism is that the belief within the utility of technology for rising human societies. Taken to Associate in Nursing extreme, technicism “reflects a elementary perspective that seeks to regulate reality, to resolve all issues with the utilization of scientific–technological strategies and tools.” In alternative words, people at large can sometime be able to master all issues and presumably even management the long run victimization technology. Some, like Stephen V. Monsma, connect these concepts to the abdication of faith as a better ethical authority.
Optimistic assumptions square measure created by proponents of ideologies like transhumanism and singularitarianism, that read technological development as usually having useful effects for the society and also the human condition. In these ideologies, technological development is virtuously sensible.
Transhumanists usually believe that the purpose of technology is to beat barriers, which what we tend to usually talk to because the human condition is simply another barrier to be surpassed.
Singularitarians believe some variety of “accelerating change”; that the speed of technological progress accelerates as we tend to get additional technology, which this can culminate in an exceedingly “Singularity” when artificial general intelligence is fancied within which progress is sort of infinite; thence the term. Estimates for the date of this Singularity vary, however outstanding futurist Ray Kurzweil estimates the Singularity can occur in 2045.
Kurzweil is additionally familiar for his history of the universe in six epochs: (1) the physical/chemical epoch, (2) the life epoch, (3) the human/brain epoch, (4) the technology epoch, (5) the unreal intelligence epoch, and (6) the universal organization epoch. Going from one epoch to consecutive could be a Singularity in its claim, and a amount of rushing up precedes it. every epoch takes a shorter time, which implies the entire history of the universe is one large Singularity event.
Some critics see these ideologies as samples of scientism and techno-utopianism and concern the notion of human sweetening and technological singularity that they support. Some have represented Marx as a techno-optimist.
Skepticism and critics
On the somewhat skeptical facet ar sure philosophers like Herbert Marcuse and John Zerzan, UN agency believe that technological societies ar inherently imperfect. They recommend that the inevitable results of such a society is to become evermore technological at the price of freedom and psychological health.
Many, like the Luddites and distinguished thinker Martin Heidegger, hold serious, though not entirely, settled reservations concerning technology (see “The Question regarding Technology”). in line with Martin Heidegger students Hubert Dreyfus and Charles Spinosa, “Heidegger doesn’t oppose technology. He hopes to reveal the essence of technology during a means that ‘in no means reach US to a stultified compulsion to move on blindly with technology or, what involves an equivalent issue, to rebel unable to help against it.’ Indeed, he guarantees that ‘when we tend to once open ourselves expressly to the essence of technology, we discover ourselves unexpectedly taken into a liberating claim.’What this entails could be a additional advanced relationship to technology than either techno-optimists or techno-pessimists tend to permit.”
Some of the foremost poignant criticisms of technology ar found in what ar currently thought-about to be dystopian literary classics like Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, Anthony Burgess’s A mechanism Orange, and Saint George Orwell’s Nineteen lxxxiv. In Goethe’s fictional character, fictional character commerce his soul to the devil reciprocally for power over the physical world is additionally usually taken as a trope for the adoption of business technology. additional recently, fashionable works of fantasy like those by prince K. Dick and William Gibson and films like Blade Runner and Ghost within the Shell project extremely ambivalent or cautionary attitudes toward technology’s impact on human society and identity.
The late cultural critic Neil carrier distinguished tool-using societies from technological societies and from what he known as “technopolies,” societies that ar dominated by the ideology of technological and scientific make the exclusion or damage of alternative cultural practices, values and world-views.
Darin Barney has written concerning technology’s impact on practices of citizenship and democratic culture, suggesting that technology is construed as (1) associate object of political dialogue, (2) a way or medium of dialogue, and (3) a setting for democratic deliberation and citizenship. As a setting for democratic culture, Barney suggests that technology tends to form moral queries, as well as the question of what a decent life consists in, nearly not possible, as a result of they already offer a solution to the question: a decent life is one that features the employment of additional and additional technology.
Nikolas Kompridis has additionally written concerning the risks of recent technology, like gene-splicing, engineering science, artificial biology, and artificial intelligence. He warns that these technologies introduce unprecedented new challenges to individuals, as well as the chance of the permanent alteration of our biological nature. These issues ar shared by alternative philosophers, scientists and public intellectuals UN agency have written concerning similar problems (e.g. Francis Fukuyama, Jürgen Habermas, William Joy, and archangel Sandel).
Another distinguished critic of technology is Hubert Dreyfus, UN agency has revealed books like On the net and What Computers Still cannot Do.
A additional ill-famed anti-technological written material is Industrial Society and Its Future, written by the Unabomber plug-ugly Kaczynski and written in many major newspapers (and later books) as a part of a shot to finish his bombing campaign of the techno-industrial infrastructure.
The notion of appropriate technology was developed in the 20th century by thinkers such as E. F. Schumacher and Jacques Ellul to describe situations where it was not desirable to use very new technologies or those that required access to some centralized infrastructure or parts or skills imported from elsewhere. The ecovillage movement emerged in part due to this concern.
Optimism and skepticism in the 21st century
The inadequate amount and quality of yankee jobs is one among the foremost elementary economic challenges we tend to face. what is the linkage between technology and this elementary problem?
— Bernstein, Jared, “It’s Not a Skills Gap That’s Holding Wages Down: It’s the Weak Economy, Among different Things,” within the yankee Prospect, Gregorian calendar month 2014
In his article, Jared conductor, a Senior Fellow at the middle on Budget and Policy Priorities, queries the widespread concept that automation, and additional generally, technological advances, have principally contributed to the current growing marketplace drawback. His thesis seems to be a 3rd means between optimism and skepticism. basically, he stands for a neutral approach of the linkage between technology and yankee problems regarding state and declining wages.
He uses 2 main arguments to defend his purpose. First, due to recent technological advances, AN increasing variety of staff square measure losing their jobs. Yet, scientific proof fails to obviously demonstrate that technology has displaced such a lot of staff that it’s created additional issues than it’s resolved. Indeed, automation threatens repetitive jobs however higher-end jobs square measure still necessary as a result of they complement technology and manual jobs that “requires flexibility judgment and customary sense” stay laborious to interchange with machines. Second, studies haven’t shown clear links between recent technology advances and therefore the wage trends of the last decades.
Therefore, per conductor, rather than specializing in technology and its hypothetic influences on current yankee increasing state and declining wages, one has to worry additional regarding “bad policy that fails to offset the imbalances in demand, trade, financial gain and chance.”
For people that use each the web and mobile devices in excessive quantities it’s doubtless for them to expertise fatigue and over exhaustion as a results of disruptions in their sleeping patterns. Continuous studies have shown that hyperbolic BMI and weight gain square measure related to people that pay long hours on-line and not sweat oftentimes. significant net use is additionally displayed within the college lower grades of these UN agency use it in excessive amounts. it’s conjointly been noted that the utilization of mobile phones while driving has hyperbolic the incidence of road accidents — notably amongst teenage drivers. Statistically, teens reportedly have fourfold the quantity of road traffic incidents as people who square measure twenty years or older, and a really high share of adolescents write (81%) and skim (92%) texts whereas driving. during this context, mass media and technology have a negative impact on folks, on each their mental and physical health.
Complex technological systems
Thomas P. Hughes expressed that as a result of technology has been thought-about as a key thanks to solve issues, we want to remember of its advanced and varied characters to use it additional expeditiously. what’s the distinction between a wheel or a compass Associate in Nursingd preparation machines like an kitchen appliance or a gas stove? will we tend to contemplate all of them, solely a section of them, or none of them as technologies?
Technology is usually thought-about too narrowly; per Hughes, “Technology could be a inventive method involving human ingenuity”.This definition’s stress on ability avoids limitless definitions which will erroneously embrace preparation “technologies,” however it additionally highlights the outstanding role of humans and thus their responsibilities for the utilization of advanced technological systems.
Yet, as a result of technology is all over and has dramatically modified landscapes and societies, Hughes argues that engineers, scientists, and managers have typically believed that they’ll use technology to form the planet as they require. they need typically supposed that technology is definitely manageable and this assumption should be completely questioned. for example, Evgeny Morozov significantly challenges 2 concepts: “Internet-centrism” and “solutionism.” Internet-centrism refers to the concept that our society is convinced that the net is one in every of the foremost stable and coherent forces. Solutionism is that the ideology that each social issue will be solved due to technology and particularly due to the net. In fact, technology in and of itself contains uncertainties and limitations. per Alexis Madrigal’s review of Morozov’s theory, to ignore it’ll cause “unexpected consequences that might eventually cause additional harm than the issues they get to deal with.” Benjamin R. Cohen and Gwen Ottinger conjointly mentioned the multivalent effects of technology.
Therefore, recognition of the constraints of technology, and additional broadly speaking, knowledge domain, is required – particularly in cases managing environmental justice and health problems. Ottinger continues this reasoning and argues that the continuing recognition of the constraints of knowledge domain goes hand in hand with scientists and engineers’ new comprehension of their role. Such Associate in Nursing approach of technology and science “[require] technical professionals to create mentally their roles within the method otherwise. [They got to contemplate themselves as] collaborators in analysis and drawback finding instead of merely suppliers of knowledge and technical solutions.”
Technology is properly defined as any application of science to accomplish a function. The science can be leading edge or well established and the function can have high visibility or be significantly more mundane, but it is all technology, and its exploitation is the foundation of all competitive advantage.
Technology-based planning is what was used to build the US industrial giants before WWII (e.g., Dow, DuPont, GM) and it is what was used to transform the US into a superpower. It was not economic-based planning.
Other animal species
The use of basic technology is additionally a feature of alternative animal species aside from humans. These embody primates like chimpanzees, some dolphin communities, and crows. Considering a a lot of generic perspective of technology as zoology of active environmental learning and management, we are able to conjointly check with animal examples like beavers and their dams, or bees and their honeycombs.
The ability to form and use tools was once thought of a shaping characteristic of the genus Homo.However, the invention of tool construction among chimpanzees and connected primates has discarded the notion of the employment of technology as distinctive to humans. as an example, researchers have determined wild chimpanzees utilising tools for foraging: some of the tools used embody leaf sponges, white ant fishing probes, pestles and levers. West African chimpanzees conjointly use stone hammers and anvils for cracking haywire, as do capuchin monkeys of Boa view, Brazil.
Theories of technology often attempt to predict the future of technology based on the high technology and science of the time. As with all predictions of the future, however, technology’s is uncertain.
In 2005, futurist Ray Kurzweil predicted that the future of technology would mainly consist of an overlapping “GNR Revolution” of genetics, nanotechnology and robotics, with robotics being the most important of the three.