Natural disaster means a sudden prevalence inflicting intensive mayhem – physical harm, loss of life and property. this case is unfavourable to human, physical, environmental and social functioning; it causes human suffering, damage to property and environmental degradation on a huge scale. The incident usually is more horrifying than the capability of the individuals living within the affected space to resist it.
Types of Natural Disasters
*Water and climate-related disasters: Cyclone, windstorm and storm, hailstones, cloud bursts, heat and cold waves, avalanches, drought, thunder and lightning.
*Land-related disasters: Landslides, mud flows, earthquakes, dam failure, mine fire.
Natural Disasters Since auld langsyne
The worst storm within the recent world had come in 1201 in Egypt and Syrian Arab Republic during which ten million individuals were killed. In early 1556, 8.50 million persons were killed in real time within the earthquake in China. In India, the worst earthquake occurred in urban center in 1737 during which three million casualties were reportable. the foremost earthquake-prone countries embody Russia, China, Syria, Egypt, Iran, Japan, Java, Italy, Morocco, Turkey, Mexico, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Greece, state and South American country. The chain of mountains region is extraordinarily sensitive to earthquake as a result of the inner rocks of the planet during this space area unit steady shifting to the north. There area unit ten dangerous volcanoes within the world which may destroy Brobdingnagian areas of the planet.
According to global organization International Disaster Mitigation Strategy (UNISDR), Asian nation is second solely to China within the case of natural calamities. In India, disasters area unit determined chiefly by the framework of geo-climatic conditions and their underlying weaknesses. owing to the intensity of those causes, numerous disasters keep revenant on a daily basis. In terms of effects and uncertainties, the frequency of climate-induced disasters, is that the highest within the country.
Disaster-prone areas in Asian nation
Nearly fifty nine % of the territory of Asian nation is liable to earthquakes. the Himalaya and its close space, the Northeast, the region of Gujarat and also the Andaman and Nicobar Islands area unit extraordinarily seismically sensitive areas.
Gujarat, geographical area, province, province, state and province figure in prime ten states in terms of injury to human life, livestock, homes and harm to crops. In province, Rajasthan and province kine suffer the foremost in calamities. the very best harm to human life happens in province, Bihar, state and province. harm to homes and crops also are highest in these four states.
The super cyclone in Odessa in 1999 and earthquake in Gujarat in 2001 were most damaging in terms of the severity of the harm within the last decade of the century. On December twenty six, 2004 earthquake smitten within the coastal areas of Asian nation that created moving ridge waves that caused intensive loss of life and property of high magnitude in province, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. This was India’s expertise of the moving ridge disaster for the primary time.
Recent Instances of Natural Disasters in Asian nation
*In 2005, flood barrel the entire of metropolis, India’s business capital.
*Floods caused by inundation of watercourse Kosi in province in 2008, many villages were submerged.
*Flood caused by downpour in Leh in Jammu and Kashmir in August 2010 killed nearly 113 individuals.
*In 2004, moving ridge had agitated the Indian Ocean by a nine.3-magnitude earthquake
*Cloudbursts in Uttarakhand in 2013 caused tragedy of unexampled magnitude, leading to the death of thousands of individuals.
Man-made causes of Calamities
Projects area unit occurring indiscriminately within the name of development and urbanization. All this can be inflicting inconceivable harm to the atmosphere. The hills area unit being broken within the name of electricity, water, touristy and development. Deforestation goes on in tableland areas. Nature is being over-exploited for extraction of minerals. huge tree-cutting goes on within the plains.
Disaster Management in Asian nation
Disaster Management Bill was approved by the Parliament on twenty eight Nov 2005 to combat calamities within the country, to scale back them and to rehabilitate the victims beneath a underprivileged institutional mechanism. it had been enacted into AN Act on December twenty three, 2005. beneath there’s a provision to ascertain the National Management Authority headed by the Prime Minister, the State Disaster Management Authority headed by Chief Ministers, and District Disaster Management Authority beneath the berth of District Judges. It additionally incorporates a provision to arrange National Disaster Management set up by the involved ministries and departments. It additionally seeks to create a National Disaster Response Force for emergency action the National Disaster Management Institute for coaching and capability building. The Act additionally has the availability to represent a National Disaster Response Fund and also the National Disaster Mitigation Fund and similar funds at state and district levels.
Despite of these measures by the govt, awareness is that the 1st condition of effective disaster management and relief agencies ought to have immediate access to the affected region. If individuals don’t have the notice of the disaster, the terrible destruction poses a retardant in relief. If doable, giving basic info to rescue individuals in disaster areas will be used to cut back the harm caused by the disaster. The disaster management coming up with, correct communication, honest and effective leadership, coordination, etc area unit important.