Information About Sun

Information About Sun

numberonestar Solar System Planets

Sun (Our Star)

Sun
Sun
  • STAR-TYPE -Yellow Dwarf
  • AGE – 4.5 billion years
  • LENGTH OF YEAR (60,190 Earth Days)
  • DISTANCE FROM GALACTIC CENTER – 26,000 light years

The Latest: NASA’s historic Parker star Probe mission can revolutionize our understanding of the Sun, wherever dynamic conditions will propagate out into the system, poignant Earth and different worlds. Parker star Probe can travel through the Sun’s atmosphere, nearer to the surface than any space vehicle before it, facing brutal heat and radiation conditions—and ultimately providing humanity with the closest-ever observations of a star.

The Sun, at the guts of our system, could be a plant disease star, a hot ball of glowing gases. Its gravity holds the system along, keeping everything from the most important planets to the littlest particles of rubble in its orbit. electrical currents within the Sun generate a field of force that’s administrated through the system by the star wind—a stream of electrically charged gas processing outward from the Sun altogether directions.

The affiliation and interactions between the Sun and Earth drive the seasons, ocean currents, weather, climate, radiation belts and aurorae. although it’s special to U.S.A., there area unit billions of stars like our Sun scattered across the Milky Way galaxy.

The Sun could be a plant disease star, a hot ball of glowing gases at the guts of our scheme. Its gravity holds the scheme along, keeping everything – from the largest planets to the littlest particles of junk – in its orbit. The affiliation and interactions between the Sun and Earth drive the seasons, ocean currents, weather, climate, radiation belts and auroras. tho’ it’s special to US, there area unit billions of stars like our Sun scattered across the Milky Way galaxy.

The Sun has several names in several cultures. The Latin word for Sun is “sol,” that is that the main adjective for all things Sun-related: star.

Size and Distance

Sun
Sun

With a radius of 432,168.6 miles (695,508 kilometers), our Sun isn’t associate degree particularly giant star—many area unit many times bigger—but it’s still way more large than our home planet: 332,946 Earths match the mass of the Sun. The Sun’s volume would want 1.3 million Earths to fill it.

The Sun is ninety three million miles (150,000 kilometers) from Earth. Its nearest stellar neighbor is that the Rigil Kent triple star system: Proxima is 4.24 light-weight years away, and Rigil Kent A and B—two stars orbiting every other—are 4.37 light-weight years away. {a light-weight|a light-weight|a lightweight} year is that the distance light travels in one year, that is adequate to 5,878,499,810,000 miles or 9,460,528,400,000 kilometers.

Orbit and Rotation

Sun Orbit and Rotation
Sun Orbit and Rotation

The Sun, and everything that orbits it, is found within the Milky Way galaxy. a lot of specifically, our Sun is in an exceedingly spiral arm known as the Orion Spur that extends outward from the Sagittarius arm. From there, the Sun orbits the middle of the Milky Way Galaxy, delivery the planets, asteroids, comets and different objects along side it. Our scheme is moving with a mean speed of 450,000 miles per hour (720,000 kilometers per hour). however even at this speed, it takes US concerning 230 million years to form one complete orbit round the Milky Way.

The Sun rotates because it orbits the middle of the Milky Way. Its spin has associate degree axial tilt of 7.25 degrees with regard to the plane of the planets’ orbits. Since the Sun isn’t a solid body, totally {different|completely different} components of the Sun rotate at different rates. At the equator, the Sun spins around once concerning each twenty five days, however at its poles the Sun rotates once on its axis each thirty six Earth days.

Formation

Why are planets closer to the Sun more dense?
Why are planets closer to the Sun more dense?

The Sun and therefore the remainder of the scheme shaped from an enormous, rotating cloud of gas and mud known as a star nebula concerning 4.5 billion years ago. because the nebula folded owing to its overwhelming gravity, it spun quicker and flattened into a disk. Most of the fabric was force toward the middle to create our Sun, that accounts for ninety 9.8% of the mass of the whole scheme.

Like all stars, the Sun can sometime run out of energy. once the Sun starts to die, it’ll swell thus massive that it’ll engulf Mercury and Venus and perhaps even Earth. Scientists predict the Sun could be a very little lower than halfway through its life and can last another 6.5 billion years before it shrinks all the way down to be a white dwarf star.

Structure

Structure of the Sun
Structure of the Sun

The Sun, like others stars, could be a ball of gas. In terms of the quantity of atoms, it’s fabricated from 91.0% gas and 8.9% helium. By mass, the Sun is regarding 70.6% gas and 27.4% helium.

The Sun’s monumental mass is command along by gravity, manufacturing vast pressure and temperature at its core. The Sun has six regions: the core, the radiative zone, and therefore the convective zone within the interior; the visible surface, referred to as the surface; the chromosphere; and therefore the outer region, the corona.

At the core, the temperature is regarding twenty seven million degrees Fahrenheit (15 million degrees Celsius), that is enough to sustain nuclear fusion. this is often a method during which atoms mix to create larger atoms and within the method unleash staggering amounts of energy. Specifically, in the Sun’s core, hydrogen atoms fuse to make helium.

The energy made within the core powers the Sun and produces all the warmth and light-weight the Sun emits. Energy from the core is carried outward by radiation, which bounces around the radiative zone, taking regarding 170,000 years to induce from the core to the highest of the convective zone. The temperature drops below 3.5 million degrees Fahrenheit (2 million degrees Celsius) within the convective zone, wherever massive bubbles of hot plasma (a soup of ionizing atoms) move upwards. The surface of the Sun—the half we will see—is regarding 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit (5,500 degrees Celsius). that is a lot of cooler than the blazing core, however it’s still hot enough to create carbon, like diamonds and carbon, not simply soften, but boil.

Surface

Sun's surface with solar flares
Sun’s surface with solar flares

The surface of the Sun, the photosphere, could be a 300-mile-thick (500-kilometer-thick) region, from that most of the Sun’s radiation escapes outward. this is often not a solid surface just like the surfaces of planets. Instead, this is often the outer layer of the gassy star.

We see radiation from the surface as daylight once it reaches Earth regarding eight minutes when it leaves the Sun. The temperature of the surface is regarding 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit (5,500 degrees Celsius).

Atmosphere

Parts of the Sun's Atmosphere
Parts of the Sun’s Atmosphere

Above the surface lie the tenuous layer and therefore the corona (crown), that compose the skinny star atmosphere. this is often wherever we tend to see options love sunspots and star flares.

Visible light from these high regions is typically too weak to be seen against the brighter surface, however throughout total star eclipses, once the moon covers the surface, the layer appears like a red rim round the Sun, whereas the corona forms a good looking white crown with plasma streamers narrowing outward, forming shapes that appear as if flower petals.

Strangely, the temperature within the Sun’s atmosphere will increase with altitude, reaching as high as 3.5 million degrees Fahrenheit (2 million degrees Celsius). The supply of lei heating has been a scientific mystery for quite fifty years.

Potential for keeps

Electric Fusion Sun
Electric Fusion Sun

The Sun itself isn’t a decent place for living things, with its hot, energetic mixture of gases and plasma. however the Sun has created life on Earth potential, providing heat in addition as energy that organisms like plants use to create the idea of the many food chains.

Moons

The Sun and different stars haven’t got moons; instead, they need planets and their moons, at the side of asteroids, comets, and different objects.

Rings

The Sun doesn’t have rings.

Magnetosphere

The Sun's dipolar field is about as strong as a refrigerator magnet, or 50 gauss.
The Sun’s dipolar field is about as strong as a refrigerator magnet, or 50 gauss.

The electric currents within the Sun generate a fancy force field that extends out into area to create the celestial body force field. the degree of area controlled by the Sun’s force field is named the part.

The Sun’s force field is meted out through the system by the star wind—a stream of electrically charged gas processing outward from the Sun altogether directions. Since the Sun rotates, the force field spins out into an outsized rotating spiral, referred to as the Parker spiral.

The Sun does not behave an equivalent manner all the time. It goes through phases of its own star cycle. some each eleven years, the Sun’s geographic poles amendment their magnetic polarity. once this happens, the Sun’s surface, layer and corona bear changes from quiet and calm to violently active. the peak of the Sun’s activity, referred to as star most, could be a time of star storms: sunspots, star flares and lei mass ejections. These square measure caused by irregularities within the Sun’s force field and may unleash Brobdingnagian amounts of energy and particles, a number of that reach North American nation here on Earth. This area weather will injury satellites, corrode pipelines and have an effect on power grids.

Exploration

Mission to the Sun
Mission to the Sun

A number of ancient cultures engineered stone structures or changed natural rock formations to mark the motions of the Sun. They charted the seasons, created calendars and monitored star and satellite eclipses.

Modern heliophysics analysis (the study of the Sun) and exploration aims to explore the complicated Sun-Earth system. This includes the Sun and its effects on Earth and therefore the system, moreover because the conditions in house that future explorers can expertise.

Significant Events

*150 CE:Earth at the Center
Greek scholar Claudius Ptolemy writes the Almagest, formalizing the Earth-centered model of the solar system. The model was accepted until the 16th century.

*1543:The Right Order
Nicolaus Copernicus publishes On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres describing his heliocentric (Sun-centered) model of the solar system.

*1610:Seeing Spots
First observations of sunspots through a telescope made independently by Galileo Galilei and Thomas Harriot. (Note: This was a terrible idea. Do not look at the Sun through a telescope. These guys didn’t know any better, but now we know there are safer ways to look at the Sun.)

*1645–1715:Cold Years
Sunspot activity declines to almost zero, possibly causing a “Little Ice Age” on Earth. Paintings such as Dutch painter’s Aert van der Neer’s “Sports on a Frozen River” (circa 1660) documented cold temperatures in places where rivers normally would not freeze.

*July 18, 1860:First Coronal Mass Ejection
Eclipse observers are surprised to see a massive burst of material from the Sun; it is the first recorded coronal mass ejection. Many observers, such as G. Tempel, recorded the event (shown).

*June 26, 1994:First Polar Observations
The international Ulysses spacecraft makes the first direct scientific observations of the Sun’s polar regions.

*June 26, 1994:First Solar Wind Samples
NASA’s Genesis spacecraft returns samples of the solar wind to Earth for study.

*February 11, 2010:The Sun in HD
NASA’s Solar Dynamic Observatory begins observing the Sun in super-high definition.

Ten Things to understand concerning Our Sun

1.BIGGEST-If the Sun were as tall as a typical outside door, Earth would be concerning the scale of a nickel.
2.MOST huge-The Sun is that the center of our system and makes up ninety nine.8 p.c of the mass of the whole system.
3.DIFFERENT SPINS-At the equator, the Sun spins once concerning each twenty five days, however at its poles the Sun rotates once on its axis each thirty five Earth days.
4.CAN’T STAND ON IT-As a star, the Sun could be a ball of gas (92.1 p.c H and seven.8 p.c helium) control along by its own gravity.
5.RINGLESS-The Sun doesn’t have any rings.
6.UNDER STUDY-Many space vehicle perpetually observe the Sun, serving to North American country keep an eye fixed on house weather that may have an effect on satellites and astronauts.
7.ENERGY FOR LIFE-Without the Sun’s intense energy, there would be no life on Earth.
8.NUCLEAR FUSION-The Sun’s core is concerning twenty seven million degrees Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (15 million degrees Celsius).
9.MOONLESS-But orbited by eight planets, a minimum of 5 dwarf planets, tens of thousands of asteroids, and up to 3 trillion comets and icy bodies.
10.WHAT WE SEE-The Sun’s visible surface generally has dark sunspots, that area unit areas of intense magnetic activity that may result in star explosions.

Pop Culture

The Sun has galvanized mythological stories in cultures round the world, as well as those of the traditional Egyptians, the Aztecs of United Mexican States, Native yank tribes of North and South America, the Chinese, and plenty of others.
In more recent times, the Sun adorns everything from album covers, corresponding to Sublime’s picture 1992 debut, to packages of raisins, whereas it influences stories in comics, theatrical films and everything in between.

If you are Superman (or a fellow Kryptonian), your powers area unit heightened by the yellow glow of our Sun, and you’ll be able to even lose dangerous materials like Superboy once did, by hurling them into the Sun. And within the 2007 film Sunshine, the Sun is dying, effort Earth in a very state of deep freeze. to avoid wasting humanity, a crewed ballistic capsule is on its thanks to ignite the Sun with a bomb, tho’ things do not go quite as planned.

 

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